4.14 – Portable Hand, Power, and Powder Actuated Tools
To ensure that all hand and power tools and similar equipment are maintained in a safe operating condition. Refer to OH&S Code Part 12.
- Always use the proper tool for the job.
- All hand tools are to be carried in tool pouches or tool bags. Tools such as utility knives, chisels, or screwdrivers shall not be carried in pockets as a worker may fall on these tools and cause a serious puncture wound.
- Cutting tools shall always be kept sharp. Care must be taken to work cutting tools away from the body not towards it. Hands should be kept behind the tool not in front of them.
- Utility knives must have spring-loaded retractable blades unless specifically approved by HSE Supervisor.
- Prior to use, hand tools must be inspected for damage and any damaged tool is to be tagged with “Do Not Use” red tag and removed from service for repair or replacement.
- Handles on hand tools shall be kept in good repair. Loose handles can create a hazard if the striking or cutting attachment comes free. A hazard could also be created from the damaged handle.
- Ends of metal impacting tools such as chisels that are mushroomed shall be dressed to prevent fragments from flying off and causing injury when struck. Eye protection is to be worn at all times.
- Wrenches are not to be used with “Snipes” or metal tubing over the end to increase leverage. Hammer wrenches pneumatic impacts or nut splitters should be used if unable to free stuck nuts.
- Gloves must be worn at all times when utilizing hand tools.
- All portable hand and power tools shall be inspected prior to use.
- Project site management shall ensure that all tools are maintained in a safe condition and used in a safe manner by all employees.
- Tools in unsafe condition shall be tagged out of service, repaired, or removed from service.
- When power operated tools are designed to accommodate guards, they shall be equipped with such guards when in use (as per OHS Regulations)
- Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating or moving parts of equipment shall be guarded if such parts are exposed to contact by employees or otherwise create a hazard. Guarding shall meet the requirements set forth in Alberta (As per OHS Regulation)
- One or more methods of machine guarding shall be provided to protect the operator and other employees in the machine area from hazards such as those created by point of operation, ongoing nip points, rotating parts, flying chips, and sparks. Examples of guarding methods are barrier guards, two-hand tripping devices, electronic safety devices, etc.
- Point of operation is the area on a machine where work is actually performed upon the material being processed. The point of operation of machines whose operation exposes an employee to injury shall be guarded. The guarding device shall be in conformity with any appropriate standards or, in the absence of specific standards, shall be so designed and constructed as to prevent the operator from having any part of his body in the danger zone during the operating cycle.
- Special hand tools for placing and removing material shall be such as to permit easy handling of material without the operator placing a hand in the danger zone. Such tools shall not be in lieu of other guarding required by this section, but can only be used to supplement protection provided.
- Tampering with safeguards is prohibited.
- The following are some of the machines which usually require point of operation guarding:
- a) Guillotine cutter
- b) Shears
- c) Alligator shears
- d) Power presses
- e) Milling machines
- f) Power saws
- g) Jointers
- h) Portable power tools
- i) Forming rolls and calendars
- Exposure of Blades
- When the distance of fan blades is less than 2.1336 meters (7 feet) above the floor or working level, the blades shall be guarded. The guard shall have openings no larger than 1.27 centimeters (1/2 inch).
- Machines designed for a fixed location shall be securely anchored to prevent walking or moving. Safety guards of the types described in this section, where the operator stands in front of the opening, shall be constructed so that the peripheral protecting member can be adjusted to the constantly decreasing diameter of the wheel. The maximum angular exposure above the horizontal plane of the wheel spindle, as specified in this section shall never be exceeded, and the distance between the wheel periphery and the adjustable tongue or the end of the peripheral member at the top shall never exceed ¼-inch.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
Employees using hand and power tools that are exposed to the hazards of falling, flying, abrasive, and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and gases shall use the particular personal protective equipment necessary to protect them from the hazard. All personal protective equipment shall meet the requirements and be maintained in accordance with the “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this manual and OH&S Code, Part 18.
- All hand-held powered platen sanders, grinders with wheels 2-inch (5.08 centimeters) diameter or less, routers, planers, laminate trimmers, nibblers, shears, scroll saws, and jigsaws with blade shanks ¼-inch wide or less may be equipped with only a positive “on-off” control.
- All hand-held powered drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical, and angle grinders with wheels greater than 5.08 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter, disc sanders, belt sanders, reciprocating saws, saber saws, and other similar operating powered tools shall be equipped with a momentary contact “on-off” control ONLY. Dead man switches are not allowed.
- All other hand-held powered tools, such as circular saws, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means shall be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the pressure is released. (Exception: This paragraph does not apply to concrete vibrators, concrete breakers, powered tampers, jack hammers, rock drills, and similar hand operated power tools.)
Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe, end, and socket wrenches, shall not be used when the jaws are sprung to point where slippage occurs. Impact tools, such as drift pins, wedges and chisels, shall be kept free of mushroomed heads. The wooden handles of tools shall be kept free of splinters or cracks.
ELECTRIC POWERED TOOLS (OH&S Code, Part 12.11)
- Electrical power tools shall either be of the approved double-insulated type or grounded. The electric cords shall not be used for hoisting or lowering of the tool.
- Do not wear loose clothing, ties, jewelry or gloves that could get caught in the machinery. Always disconnect the power source before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments of power tools.
- Keep body parts and loose clothing away from the point of operation.
SAFE USE OF ELECTRIC POWER TOOLS PURPOSE
The purpose of this practice is to establish the general requirements for the use of electric power tools on GRIFFIN work sites.
- All power tools must be CSA approved. Power tools must be 3-prong ground or double insulated.
- When using power tools read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Cutting or abrasive attachments such as blades, discs or bits shall be of proper size.
- Never force or put pressure on power tools. Always let the tool do the work. Applying too much pressure may cause the blade, disc or bit to fail.
- Always disconnect the tool from the power source when making adjustments or changing the attachment.
- All electric hand tools must be connected to a GFCI circuit prior to use.
- Trigger locking device shall be removed from all tools.
- Guards shall be used on all equipment as equipped by the manufacturer. Guards and other safety devices shall not be modified, tampered with or removed.
- Power tools shall not be hoisted or handled by the cord. Cords shall be removed from the receptacles by removing the plug, not by pulling the cord.
- When handling power tools always use eye protection appropriate for the job. Use of power tools that may cause flying particles such as grinding and buffing requires goggles and a face shield.
- Power tools must be held firmly and material must be properly secured before turning on and starting work. Always use handles provided to help control the tool and prevent twisting.
- Never wear loose clothing or dangling jewelry when using power tools.
- Pipe or conduit threading machines and drill presses must be equipped with a foot pedal for on and off controls. In the event clothing or other materials get caught in the equipment, toggle switch may not be reachable.
PNEUMATIC POWERED TOOLS
- Pneumatic power tools shall be secured to the hose or whip by some positive means to prevent the tool from becoming accidentally disconnected. Safety clips or retainers shall be securely installed and maintained on pneumatic impact (percussion) tools to prevent attachments from being accidentally expelled.
- All pneumatically driven nailers, staplers, and other similar equipment provided with automatic fastener feed, which operate at more than 100 psi pressure at the tool shall have a safety device on the muzzle to prevent the tool from ejecting fasteners, unless the muzzle is in contact with the work surface.
- Compressed air shall not be used for cleaning purposes except where reduced to less than 30 psi, and then only with effective chip guarding and personal protective equipment. The 30 psi requirement does not apply for concrete form, mill scale and similar cleaning purposes. Hoses exceeding ½-inch inside diameter shall have a safety device at the source of supply or branch line to reduce pressure in case of hose failure. The hoses on pneumatic tools shall not be used for hoisting or lowering of the tools.
- Airless spray guns of the type which atomize paints and fluids at high pressures (1,000 pounds (373.242 kilograms (troy)) (453.592 kilograms (avoir)) or more per square inch) shall be equipped with automatic or visible manual safety devices which will prevent pulling of the trigger to prevent release of the paint or fluid until the safety device is manually released. A diffuser nut which will prevent high pressure, high velocity release while the nozzle tip is removed, plus a nozzle tip guard which will prevent the tip from coming into contact with the operator or other equivalent protection shall be provided in lieu of the above.
- Abrasive cleaning nozzles shall be equipped with an operating valve which must be held open manually. A support shall be provided on which the nozzle may be mounted when it is not in use.
- Personal protective equipment shall be used according to hazard assessment details.
- Always disconnect the energy source before performing any repairs, servicing or adjustments to pneumatic tools.
FUEL POWERED TOOLS
- Fuel powered tools shall be shut down when being refueled, serviced, or maintained. Fuel shall be transported, handled, and stored in approved safety cans. When fuel powered tools are used in enclosed spaces, the applicable requirements for concentrations of toxic gases and use of personal protective equipment, shall be used.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or repairs to fuel powered tools always remove the spark plug wire.
- Personal protective equipment shall be used in accordance with the “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this manual.
HYDRAULIC POWER TOOLS
- Hydraulic power tools shall use only fluid that is fire resistant and shall retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be exposed. The manufacturers’ safe operating pressures for hoses, valves, pipes, filters and fittings shall not be exceeded. These hoses require certification be obtained for all hydraulic hoses.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments “Lockout/Tagout Guidelines” shall be followed.
- Personal protective equipment shall be used per “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” of this manual.
ABRASIVE WHEELS AND TOOLS
- All abrasive wheels and tools used by employees shall meet applicable requirements of OHS Code, Part 25, Section 375. All grinding machines shall be supplied with sufficient power to maintain the spindle speed at safe levels under all conditions of normal operation.
- Safety guards shall cover the spindle end, nut, and flange projection and be mounted accordingly to maintain proper alignment with the wheel. The strength of the fastenings shall exceed the strength of the guard with the following exceptions:
- a) Guards on operations where the work provides a suitable measure of protection to the operator the spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed.
- b) Where the nature of the work is such as to entirely cover the wheel, the side covers may be omitted.
- c) The spindle end, nut, and outer flange may be exposed on machines designed as portable saws.
- Floor stand and bench mounted abrasive wheels, used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods). The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not be more than 90°, except when work requires contact with the wheel below the horizontal plane of the spindle, and the angular exposure shall not exceed 125°. In either case, the exposure shall not begin more than 65° above the horizontal plane of the spindle. Safety guards shall be strong enough to withstand the effect of a bursting wheel.
- Floor and bench-mounted grinders shall be provided with work rests that are rigidly supported and readily adjustable. Such work rests shall be kept at a distance not to exceed 1/8-inch (0.3175 centimeters) from the surface of the wheel.
- Cup type wheels used for external grinding shall be protected by either a revolving cup guard or a band type guard. All other portable abrasive wheels used for external grinding, shall be provided with safety guards (protection hoods) meeting the requirements in this section, except as follows:
- a) When the work location makes it impossible, a wheel equipped with safety flanges shall be used.
- b) When wheels 2 inches or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used.
- Portable abrasive wheels used for internal grinding shall be provided with safety flanges (protection flanges) meeting the requirements this section except as follows:
- a) When wheels 5.08 centimeters (2 inches) or less in diameter which are securely mounted on the end of a steel mandrel are used;
- b) If the wheel is entirely within the work being ground while in use.
- When safety guards are required, they shall be mounted accordingly to maintain proper alignment with the wheel, and the guard and its fastenings shall be of sufficient strength to retain fragments of the wheel in case of accidental breakage. The maximum angular exposure of the grinding wheel periphery and sides shall not exceed 180°.
- When safety flanges are required, they shall be used only with wheels designed to fit the flanges. Only safety flanges, of a particular type and design, and properly assembled ensure that the pieces of the wheel will be retained in case of accidental breakage, shall be used.
- All abrasive wheels shall be closely inspected and ring-tested before mounting to ensure that they are free from cracks or defects. Grinding wheels shall fit freely on the spindle and shall not be forced on. The spindle nut shall be tightened only enough to hold the wheel in place.
- All employees using abrasive wheels shall be protected by using eye protection, except when adequate eye protection is afforded by eye shields that are permanently attached to the bench or floor stand.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments to portable hand held abrasive wheel equipment the energy source shall be disconnected. For stationary abrasive wheel equipment, “Lockout/Tagout Guidelines” shall be followed.
- All workers shall be appropriately trained in the use of hydraulic power tools and documented in the Griffin Properties HSE training data base.
On offhand grinding machines, work rests shall be used to support the work. They shall be of rigid construction and designed to be adjustable to compensate for wheel wear. Work rests shall be kept adjusted closely to the wheel with a maximum opening of 0.3175 centimeters (1/8-inch) to prevent the work from being jammed between the wheel and the rest, which may cause wheel breakage. The work rest shall be securely clamped after each adjustment. The adjustment shall not be made with the wheel in motion.
WOOD WORKING TOOLS
- All woodworking tools and machinery shall meet applicable requirements of U.S.-American National Standards Institute, 01.1-1961, Safety Code for Woodworking Machinery.
- All fixed power-driven woodworking tools shall be provided with a disconnect switch that can either be locked or tagged in the off position.
- The operating speed shall be etched or otherwise permanently marked on all circular saws over 50.8 centimeters (20 inches) in diameter or operating at over 10,000 rounds per minute and shall not be operated at a speed other than that marked on the blade.
- Automatic feeding devices shall be installed on machines whenever the nature of the work will permit. Feeder attachments shall have the feed rolls or other moving parts covered or guarded so as to protect the operator from hazardous points.
- All portable, power-driven circular saws shall be equipped with guards above and below the base plate or shoe. The upper guard covers the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to permit the base to be tilted for bevel cuts. The lower guard covers the saw to the depth of the teeth, except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool is withdrawn from the work, the lower guard shall automatically and instantly return to the covering position.
- Personal protective equipment shall be used in accordance with the “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this manual and OH&S Code, Part 18.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments to portable hand held wood working equipment the energy source shall be disconnected. For stationary wood working equipment “Lockout/Tagout Guidelines” shall be followed.
PORTABLE BELT SANDING MACHINES
- Belt sanding machines shall be provided with guards at each nip point where the sanding belt runs onto a pulley. These guards shall effectively prevent the hands or fingers of the operator from coming in contact with the nip points. The unused run of the sanding belt shall be guarded against accidental contact.
- Personal protective equipment shall be provided in accordance with the “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this manual the HSE manual.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments to portable hand held sanding equipment the energy source shall be disconnected. Utilize the lockout/tagout procedure prior to working on stationary or fixed sanding equipment.
- The upper hood shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade down to a point that will include the end of the saw arbor, and shall be constructed in such a manner and of such material that it will protect the operator from flying splinters, broken saw teeth, etc., and will deflect sawdust away from the operator. The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded to the full diameter of the blade by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum protection possible for the operation being performed.
- Personal protective equipment shall be provided in accordance with the “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this HSE manual.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments to radial saws the energy source shall be disconnected and “Lockout/Tagout guidelines” shall be followed.
HAND FED CROSS CUT SAWS
- Each circular crosscut table saw shall be guarded by a hood which meets all the requirements for circular ripsaws.
- Personal protective equipment shall be used in accordance with the “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this HSE manual.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments to cross cut saws the energy source shall be disconnected, and “Lockout/Tagout Guidelines” shall be followed.
HAND-FED RIP SAWS
- Each circular hand-fed ripsaw shall be guarded by a hood that shall completely enclose that portion of the saw above the table, and that portion of the saw above the material being cut. The hood and mounting shall be arranged so that the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the material and remain in contact while being cut, but it shall not offer any considerable resistance to insertion of material to saw or to passage of the material being sawed. The hood shall be made of adequate strength to resist blows and strains incidental to reasonable operation, adjusting, handling, and shall be so designed as to protect the operator from flying splinters and broken saw teeth. It shall be made of material that is soft enough so that it will be unlikely to cause saw tooth breakage. The hood shall be mounted to ensure that its operation will be positive, reliable, and in true alignment with the saw. The mounting shall be adequate in strength to resist any reasonable side thrust or other force tending to throw it out of line.
- Personal protective equipment shall be used in accordance with “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this HSE manual.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments to hand fed rip saws the energy source shall be disconnected, and “Lockout/Tagout Guidelines” shall be followed.
JACKS – LEVER, RATCHET, SCREW, AND HYDRAULIC
- The manufacturer’s rated capacity shall be legibly marked on all jacks and shall not be exceeded.
- All jacks shall have a positive stop to prevent over-travel.
- When it is necessary to provide a firm foundation, the base of the jack shall be blocked or cribbed. Where there is a possibility of slippage of the metal cap of the jack, a wood block shall be placed between the cap and the load.
- After the load has been raised, it shall be immediately cribbed, blocked, or otherwise secured.
- Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures shall be supplied with an adequate antifreeze liquid, properly lubricated at regular intervals, and be thoroughly inspected at frequencies which depend upon the service conditions.
- Personal protective equipment shall be used per “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” of this HSE manual.
- Before making any repairs, servicing or adjustments to hydraulic jacks “Lockout/Tagout Guidelines” of this manual shall be followed.
Inspections shall be not less frequent than the following:
- For constant or intermittent use at one locality, once every 6 months.
- For jacks sent out of shop for special work, upon shipment and return.
- For a jack subjected to abnormal load or shock, immediately before and immediately thereafter.
- Repair or replacement parts shall be examined for possible defects.
- Defective jacks shall be tagged accordingly and repaired prior to use.
WALK-BEHIND AND RIDING ROTARY MOWERS
- Before beginning work, carefully inspect the area and remove any wire, rocks, glass or other foreign objects that could become missiles if struck by the blades.
- Inspect the mower for defective parts and loose guards before starting it. Do not fuel the mower with the engine running or when it is hot.
WALK-BEHIND ROTARY MOWERS
- The mower blade shall be enclosed except on the bottom and the enclosure shall extend to or below the lowest cutting point of the blade in the lowest blade position.
- The horizontal angle of the opening(s) in the blade enclosure, intended for the discharge of grass, shall not contact the operator area. There shall be one of the following at all openings in the blade enclosure intended for the discharge of grass:
- a) A minimum unobstructed horizontal distance of 3 inches (7.62 centimeters) from the end of the discharge chute to the blade tip circle.
- b) A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening, secured to prevent removal without the use of tools. The bottom of the bar shall be no higher than the bottom edge of the blade enclosure.
- The highest point(s) of the front of the blade enclosure, except discharge openings, shall be such that any line extending a maximum of 15° downward from the horizontal toward the blade shaft axis (axes) shall not intersect the horizontal plane within the blade tip circle. The highest point(s) on the blade enclosure front, except discharge-openings, shall not exceed 1-1/4 inches above the lowest cutting point of the blade in the lowest blade position. Mowers with a swing over handle are to be considered as having no front, and the blade shall be enclosed except on the bottom.
- The mower handle shall be fastened to the mower so as to prevent loss of control by unintentional uncoupling while in operation.
- a) A positive stop or latch shall be provided for the mower handle in the normal operating position(s). The stop shall not be subject to unintentional disengagement during normal operation of the mower. The stop or latch shall not allow the center or the handle grips to come closer than 43.18 centimeters (17 inches) horizontally behind the closest path of the mower blade(s) unless manually disengaged.
- b) A swing-over handle, which complies with the above requirements, will be permitted.
- Wheel drive disengaging controls, except deadman controls, shall move opposite to the direction of the vehicle motion in order to disengage the drive. Deadman controls shall automatically interrupt power to a drive when the operator’s actuating force is removed, and may operate in any direction to disengage the drive.
RIDING ROTARY MOWERS
- The highest point(s) of all openings in the blade enclosure front shall be limited by a vertical angle opening of 15° and a maximum distance of 3.175 centimeters (1-1/4 inches) above the lowest cutting point of the blade in the lowest blade position.
- Opening(s) shall be placed so that grass or debris will not discharge directly toward any part of an operator seated in a normal operator position and there shall be one of the following at all openings in the blade enclosure intended for the discharge of grass:
- a) A minimum unobstructed horizontal distance of 15.24 centimeters (6 inches) from the end of the discharge chute to the blade tip circle.
- b) A rigid bar fastened across the discharge opening, secured to prevent removal without the use of tools. The bottom of the bar shall be no higher than the bottom edge of the blade enclosure.
- Mowers shall be provided with stops to prevent jackknifing or locking of the steering mechanism. Hand-operated wheel drive disengaging controls shall move opposite to the direction of vehicle motion in order to disengage the drive. Foot-operated wheel drive disengaging controls shall be depressed to disengage the drive. Deadman controls, both hand and foot operated, shall automatically interrupt power to a drive when the operator’s actuating force is removed, and may operate in any direction to disengage the drive.
- Always disconnect the spark plug wire before inspecting.
EXPLOSIVE POWDER ACTUATED TOOLS (must be CSA approved)
- Explosive actuated tools must be CSA approved and shall meet, OH&S Code, Section 374 safety requirements, and be operated only by employees who have documented training in the particular type tool being used. Personal protective equipment shall be in accordance with the manufacturer and “Personal Protective Equipment Guidelines” section of this manual. Explosive actuated tools shall not be used in an explosive atmosphere. All tools shall be used with the correct shield, guard, or attachment recommended by the manufacturer.
- Explosive actuated tools shall be tested each day before loading to ensure safety devices are in proper working condition. The method of testing the specific tool shall be with the manufacturer’s recommended procedure. Tools shall not be loaded until just prior to the intended firing time and the workers hands shall be kept clear of the open barrel end. Loaded or empty tools are not to be pointed at any employees. Any tool that is not in proper working order, or that develops a defect during use, shall immediately be removed from service until repaired by a competent qualified person.
STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE
- The explosive powder-actuated tool and ammunition shall be kept in a locked box at all times to prevent unauthorized use. “No smoking” signs shall be posted in storage areas.
- Storage of the tool, ammunition and studs shall be controlled to the point that only AUTHORIZED, TRAINED personnel can withdraw them for use. Ammunition shall be kept under lock and key at all times when not in use.
- Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for inspection, maintenance, replacement parts and ammunition.
- Ammunition, studs, nails, etc., shall be of the proper specification. Tools shall be equipped with the proper guard.
- A designated person from the manufacturer/supplier shall train, qualify and license site employees in use and maintenance of the gun.
- Only authorized/licensed individuals shall be allowed to check and use powder-actuated tools.
- Safety Supervisor or designated person(s) will document the issuing and use of the explosive tools for each specific tools for each specific job
- Work areas shall be barricaded and sign posted stating “Danger – Explosive Tool in Use.”
- Powder actuated tools shall not be used where studs are to be driven into surface-hardened steel, cast iron, glazed brick or tile, marble, granite, or similar brittle materials.
- Powder actuated tools shall not be used in locations where explosives, flammable gasses, vapors, or dusts are present.
- Existing and applicable local laws governing the use of explosive tools shall be followed.
- Tool operators shall wear face shields over mono-goggles when the tool is being used. Ear protection shall be used. Operator must assure no one is on the backside of material being shot to avoid injury by penetration.
- Tools shall not be loaded until just prior to the intended firing time. Tools shall never be pointed at anyone.
- Loaded tools shall not be left unattended.
- Materials easily penetrated shall be avoided unless such materials are backed by a substance that will prevent the pin or fastener from passing completely through the material. If the fastener must be driven closer than 7.62 centimeters (3 inches) to the edge of brick, concrete or masonry surfaces, steel safety shields shall be placed on the sides of the surfaces to prevent flying spalls. No fastener shall be driven into a spalled area caused by an unsatisfactory fastening.
- Only the “captive stud” type gun shall be used. Guns capable of firing a stud into free flight at high velocity are prohibited.
- Only low-velocity tools are to be used. A low-velocity tool (velocity of fastener may not exceed 300 FPS at 1.9812 meters (6.5 feet) from muzzle) employs the principal of a power-actuated captive piston driving a free stud at low velocity. Stud driving is accomplished from piston inertia. Once free of the piston, the stud alone has insufficient inertia to produce free flight, ricochet, or penetration and is therefore safer than the “free flight” high-velocity tool.
In case of a misfire, the operator shall hold the tool in the operating position for at least 30 seconds. Then proceed to fire the next shot. Misfired charges should be turned in with the tool and subsequently turned over to the site Safety Office/Safety Representative or designated person(s) for disposal.
BASIC SAFETY RULES
The following are basic safety rules for using powder actuated tools:
- Hold tools firmly against the surface of the material.
- Wear safety goggles and face shields when using the tool.
- Wear hearing protection when using the tool.
- Do not store or use tools and cartridges in explosive or flammable atmospheres.
- Take precautions for the safety of persons in the immediate vicinity. Do not fire the tool until you are sure there is no one behind the surface you are working on in case of accidental penetration.
- Use caution when driving fasteners or pins into soft material.
- Drive fasteners a safe distance from the edge of material and in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
PURPOSE FOR THE USE OF EXPLOSIVE ACTUATED TOOLS
The purpose of this practice is to establish the general requirements for the use of explosive actuated tools.
- All explosive actuated tools must be CSA Approved (Including other certifications as required).
- All explosive actuated tools shall be operated and maintained in accordance with manufacturers’ specifications. It is critical that information specific to each manufacturer be known; such as, shot length, color coding, and fastening devices are not standardized or interchangeable from manufacturer to manufacturer.
- Manufacturers’ specifications cover the type of color-coded cartridge for certain materials and applications. As these specifications can not cover every material or application, testing may be required. Refer to the manufacturers recommended procedure for determining the correct fastener for unknown base materials.
- The general rule is to start with the weakest cartridge and increase the load number one at a time to reach required penetration.
- All operators of explosive actuated tools shall have documentation of training issued under the authority of the explosive actuated tool manufacturer.
- Explosive actuated tools shall be designated so that two separate actions are required before it will fire, pressure against the surface of the material and the action of the trigger. Never depress the muzzle against anything but the surface of the material to be fastened. The tool must be fitted with a proper small guard.
- Explosive actuated tools shall never be pointed at anyone, whether loaded or unloaded. Hands shall be kept free of the muzzle end at all times.
- Explosive actuated tools shall be held firmly and at right angles to the surface being driven into. Fastening devices shall be kept in from the edge the minimum distance recommended by the manufacturer for the material being adhered to.
- Explosive actuated tools shall be kept in a locked container when not in use. Explosive actuated tools must not be left unattended (breaks stored in gang box and locked).
- The operator or the tool has the responsibility to warn others in the area that the tool is about to be fired. If the area is open to traffic, barricade tape must be put up.
- Explosive actuated tools shall only be loaded when required for immediate use. Tools shall not be left loaded when stored or unattended. Use only fasteners that are approved specifically for the tool you are using.
- Explosive actuated tools are a source of combustions and must be used in a safe, non-explosive atmosphere. A hot work permit is required to use an explosive actuated tool in designated areas or live plant.
- The operator must make sure that no person is situated on the opposite side of the material being fastened. Inspect both sides of the work area.
IN THE EVENT OF MISFIRE
- Hold the tool against the material at least 30 seconds in case firing is delayed.
- Remove the cartridge from the tool, keeping the tool away from the body preferably pointed towards material such as wood.
- Place misfired cartridge in a container of water (sand in winter).
- Return misfired cartridge to manufacturer. DO NOT dispose of in garbage.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
- Operators of explosive actuated tools shall wear a hard hat, safety glasses, face shield, and hearing protection. A heavy shirt and pants should also be worn to protect against possible flying materials.
- Person working in close proximity to the operation of an explosive actuated tool will wear the same PPE.
STORAGE OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS (SHOT)
- Explosive cartridges, or shots, must be stored in a locked, fire resistant cabinet in the tool crib or warehouse.
- Spent cartridges must be returned to the tool crib for proper disposal.
DISPOSAL OF SPENT CARTRIDGES
- Spent cartridges that have properly discharged may be disposed of in the regular garbage.
- Miss-fired shots must be returned to the tool crib and stored in a fire-resistant cabinet until they can be returned to the manufacturer